Nevertheless, language teachers could achieve those goals as well by moving beyond the functional language syllabus and by adopting Content-Based Instruction in their syllabus which targets content-rich and high-standard curriculum with critical thinking skills. Cummins (1980; 1981; 1996) theorized that there are two kinds of English proficiency that ESL students must learn. The first Basic Interpersonal Conversational Skills involves the ability to converse with others and to articulate needs in L2, and can be developed only 2-3 years.
The most common example of sheltered content instruction is for international students. Students looking to learn a new language may attend a boarding school or stay with a host family in another country. For example, a French student may spend a school year living in America. They attend regular classes and develop English language skills through structured immersion. The focus of most foreign language curricula is on learning about language rather than learning to use language for meaningful communication about relevant content. CBI, in contrast, is an approach to curriculum design that seeks to reach a balance between language and content instruction with an emphasis “on using the language rather than on talking about it” (Lightbown & Spada, 1999, p. 92).
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Research on strategy instruction has demonstrated that it works best when integrated within the regular curriculum as a consistent feature of content and language instruction (Grabe & Stoller, 1997). Because students in content-based courses must read, listen to, speak, and write in the target language, teachers in these courses often make it a point to discuss with their students various strategies when using each of these language skills. This book introduces readers to the concept of Content-Based Instruction through a brief history and countless examples of the many ways this approach can be applied across settings and programs. Whether readers want to deepen their understanding of CBI or get ideas for their own teaching situation, this book provides an overview of CBI and the process of implementing it.
In a nutshell, although CBI is a challenging approach for both teachers and students, the outcome of its implementation can be rewarding and motivating. CBI offers a wide educational knowledge to learners in the form of the different topics instructed. It’s important to note that the content continues through the whole course, not just a handful of lessons.
The school curriculum specifies that the course should include studying U.S. pioneers, and Ms. Peng feels that technology can not only help her to address the students’ content and language needs but also help them to have some authentic pioneer experiences. After she develops her objectives for both content and language for her unit on pioneer life, she decides to use a networked version of Broderbund’s old but popular Oregon Trail software to supplement the textbook. 3.Adjunct language instruction In this model, students are enrolled in two linked courses, one a content course and one a language course, with both courses sharing the same content base but differ in their focus of instruction. The language teachers emphasize language skills, while content teachers focus on academic concepts.
Hence students make greater connections with the language and what they already know. Historically, the word content has changed its meaning in second language teaching. Content used to refer to the methods of grammar-translation, audio-lingual methodology, and vocabulary or sound patterns in dialog form. And then, the teacher elucidates how latitude and longitude can be used to locate any place in the world.
Can CBI be used in teaching languages other than English?
Finally, students need to make commitment to this new approach to language learning (Stryker & Leaver, 1993). Typically, the materials in CBI are used with the subject matter of the content course. It is recommended that “authentic” materials are identified and utilized. Some realia such as tourist guidebooks, technical journals, railway timetables, newspaper ads, or TV broadcasts are also recommended by many CBI practitioners (Richards & Rodgers, 2001).
- The school curriculum specifies that the course should include studying U.S. pioneers, and Ms. Peng feels that technology can not only help her to address the students’ content and language needs but also help them to have some authentic pioneer experiences.
- The adjunct language instruction model helps them to build the skills needed to transition to mainstream academic courses.
- However, it may be more suitable for intermediate to advanced learners who have a basic level of language proficiency.
- An attempt is often made to integrate the topic into the teaching of all skills (Brinton et al., 1989).
- Hence, Krashen’s model provides a theoretical foundation for CBI that provides students contextualized language curricula built around meaningful and comprehensible input through which not only language but information is required.
Traditional language education focuses entirely on the study of the language. A traditional language lesson typically would involve learning and memorizing vocabulary and grammar. A teacher would present the content and students may participate in activities or complete worksheets. But a lesson using content-based instruction could be anything; for example, a language lesson could be learning how to cook French cuisine, studying the history of the Spanish-American War, or examining the geography of Europe.
Comparison to other approaches
Describe ways in which language, food, crafts, customs, architecture, and the performing and visual arts serve as expressions of culture and influence the behavior of people living in the community. According to Brinton, Snow, and Wesche , there are three CBI teaching models that practitioners can apply. A teacher may discuss the different food groups, foods from different countries, how food is grown, or how to prepare a special dish. As an activity, the class may prepare a dish or an entire meal together. Developing collaborative skills, especially when using group work, which can have great social value.
Hence, Krashen’s model provides a theoretical foundation for CBI that provides students contextualized language curricula built around meaningful and comprehensible input through which not only language but information is required. The theoretical foundations supporting CBI derive https://www.globalcloudteam.com/ from cognitive learning theory and Second Language Acquisition research. Cognitive learning theory posits that in the process of acquiring literacy skills, students progress through a series of three stages, that is, the cognitive, the associative, and the autonomous.
Although it has existed since the 1980s, content-based learning is a method of education that has been gaining popularity in recent years. The reading by Fred Genesee reviews research from the field of immersion education and identifies important lessons that can be learned from this CBI model. The guided comprehension activity serves as an opportunity for teachers to check on the reading and reflect on what they’ve learned. In this module, you will be introduced to the principles that underlie content-based instruction in second or foreign language contexts.
In contrast to traditional language instruction, content-based learning focuses on topical and conceptual information rather than language. Language comprehension emerges naturally as a byproduct of content-based learning. When ELLs’ basic conversational English skills are as high as Jeffery’s, what language teachers could do to help learners have an even higher level of English? Should language teachers drill more to assist learners express themselves more concisely or conduct additional grammar practice for mastery of verb tenses?
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Modeling the relationships among reading instruction, motivation, engagement, and achievement for adolescents. This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution. Discuss reasons why communities are established, https://www.globalcloudteam.com/glossary/content-based-model/ how individuals and families contribute to the development of the community, and how communities change over time. Greater flexibility and adaptability in the curriculum can be deployed as per the student’s interest.